"…when BTL withdrew from the project, they needed to rewrite an operating system (OS) in order to play space war on another smaller machine  (a DEC PDP-7 [Programmed Data Processor] with 4K memory for user programs).  The result  was a system which a punning colleague called UNICS (UNiplexed Information and Computing Service) - an 'emasculated Multics’; no one recalls whose idea the change to UNIX was”  

Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson, June 1972  

Apache™ Web Server Software

apache-22-rank med

The website security levels are implicit also in other basic choices took by Graphene, subjects apparently unrelated to malwares.   To choose the Company which should have hosted our network, we evaluated the diffusion of all existing types of web servers.  Please, refer to the bar graph on side, quoted by W3Techs Web Technology Surveys, a Q-Success division (w3techs.com).  It shows the relative diffusion of the worldwide top 14 ranked types of web servers: Apache™, by the  Apache Software Foundation, results the best choice of two-thirds of the World Wide Web Developers. When these notes are compiled, 43 of them cover 99.9 % of all of the web servers of the World.  

On right side:  ~65 % of all of the web servers of the world are Apache (UNIX) like the one processing these pages

They corresponds to different Security levels and Technologies.  We choose Apache, in its most recent version 2.2, because:

  • UNIX®-based, say extremely stable;
  • 64.9 % of the web servers are Apache.

Between those who choose Apache are also:

  • Apple, Inc.                               apple.com
  • Baidu                                       baidu.com
  • Wikipedia                                 wikipedia.org
  • Verizon Comm., Inc.                verizon.com
  • British Broadcasting Corp.      bbc.co.uk

CloudLinux™ Operating System

CloudLinux is Graphene® web server OS

We considered what had to be the optimal Operating System for the servers and preferred Linux.  Linux is already a popular Operating System of the UNIX family, famous because of its stability and security.  As a matter of fact, the most wide spread Ubuntu is also Linux-based.   

Please, refer to the bar graph below on right side, quoted by W3Techs Web Technology Surveys (a Q-Success division, Aug. 16, 2013  w3techs.com).   In this case, we preferred CloudLinux® exactly because it is Linux, but not so popular as other Linux versions.          

In terms of Security the kind of web server is not so relevant as the choice of the Operating System, in which these applications have to run. “Popular Operating Systems” synonimous of those where the greatest relative percentage of the malwares are made for: two well-known examples being Windows® and Android®.

The Web Servers simultaneously adopting: 

  • Apache web servers;
  • Linux OS;

are a small subset of all of the existing.  Going deeper into technical details, CloudLinux features:

  • Mutual Users’ isolation, to avoid the “bad neighbor effect”;
  • Users cannot see configuration files and other private information;
  • Possibility for the end User to select the PHP versions (this web site of Graphene, due to security concerns, does not use PHP);
  • The power to monitor and control limits, such as CPU, IO, Memory, and others;
  • Restriction and throttle MySQL database abusers;
  • Compatibility with all major control panels: the Graphene's web site adopts “cPanel”.

This OS is actually used in > 10000 web servers by > 100 Data Centres. 

Further details linking:  


Apple hardware

Apple, Inc., the Company started thirty years ago by Steve Paul Jobs and Steve Wozniak in a garage and now the company no. 1 of the world, the same who built the first personal computer of the history, is a well known and appreciated Vendor of computer hardware.   Recently, it made available a video showing the step-by-step phases of production in the USA of the newly born Mac, now the most powerful personal computer of the history.  Video accessible hovering and clicking the Apple logo on right side.  

We are including this direct link to the Apple, Inc. company, because that hardware is a true model of modern high quality Electronic Engineering.  Also, a reference of how Electronic Inspectors hardware should have to be designed, considering that Bottling Controls to be apparatuses capable to control the Quality of something else, cannot abide by Quality themselves.  On the opposite, it is a fact that there is not a little of expensive crap dressed-to-look-like Quality, something in contradiction with the Quality Control task of the devices object of this website.

The inner machinery of this pages

65 GB


What you see in these pages is the surface of an inner machinery processing the Hyper Text Markup Language source code, whose shortened form HTML is since two decades universally known.  

Graphene’s website contents have an extension 10 GB.  

After adding further ~ 60 GB of Full HD or HD multimedia content, hosted on behalf of Graphene in the Manhattan-based servers by Vimeo™, recalled by pointers lying in those 5 GB in A2 Hosting, the total size of the contents actually made available results ~65 GB.

                                                                                                            Copyright Graphene Limited 2013-2019