Objects and Measurements’ hidden Nature

**In**** 1915 Einstein extended Relativity Theory to include also some of the ideas underlined by the figure on side. T****o every point of a curved differentiable manifold **M,** can be attached a tangent space, a vector space containing all possible directions along which one can pass through the point. **If the parameter *t* identifying the spatial leaf (or, sheet) is such as to make the tangent vector unitary, then its physical meaning is that of the *proper Time**t*. **Reader may figures out the basic meaning of “differentiable manifold” recalling the 2D surface of the Earth or the waves formed in a liquid surface when perturbed by one point source. **

**After 1915 different 3D leaves of the foliation may have different or equal times and no one of the leaves is less real than another**

A few definite steps allow to fully recognise the nature of the Events. Also, the action and function of the devices part of the industrial Machinery and of the equipments to count and relate them. For example Triggers, Microprocessors, PLCs, etc. As an initial step, it is necessary to understand that the 4D space-time described by Minkowski and Einstein between 1905 and 1907, still presented as a basic concept to the future Electronics or Electrotechnics Engineers, since several decades is no more witheld a theory representing the idea of reality outlined by the experiments.

Time-Identified Events

A key point regards Time. Time has been in the past considered to be the fundamental phenomena underlying Dynamics. Until 1907 the 3D spatial environment was considered stratified by the universally valid time coordinate *t.*

**”T****o every point of a curved differentiable manifold **M,** can be attached a tangent space, a vector space containing all possible directions along which one can pass through the point. T**he parameter *t* identifying the spatial leaf is such as to make the tangent vector unitary. Its physical meaning is that of the *proper Time**t” ***(**
**csdn.net/2014)**

The relativistic point of view about Time and Events conceived in 1907 a 3D flat space labelled by mean of the Time parameter *t*. Time continued to allow to order sequentially all the physical Events, as an example, the measures of a Physical property like the spin or its collective counterpart, polarisation. Events identified with 3+1 coordinates. Still a *single-history* concept, where a bulk of flat 3D spatial hypersurfaces is crossed by one perpendicular time-like straight line and definite corrections have to be applied to times and distances to account for the relative speedths of the moving bodies. *Single-history* concept of 1908 by the laymen still today imagined the environment we are inhabiting.

**Reeb foliation. The visible ****leaves are 3D hypersurfaces. Each Observer, Detector or industrial machinery occupies a multitude of 3D leaves of the 4D foliation. Because of this reason each individual Detector (e.g., a Silicium atom in a pixel in a camera) collects changes in the status of a multitude of Detectors densely existing all around. Each of them sensitive only along an instant of Time (**

**Tambara Institute of Mathematical Sciences/Univ. of Tokio/2014)**

Interfering Manifolds

In 1915, Einstein in its General Relativity revised deeply Minkowski's idea of 1907, applying new principles (general covariance and equivalence) over topological spaces. Since then, Time has no more the unambigously defined meaning of Event-identifier it had before. The topological spaces to whom we are referring are the Manifolds, resembling near each one point the known Euclidean space. The neighbourhood of each point of an N-dimensional manifold is homeomorphic to the Euclidean space of dimension N. The simplest 1D manifolds are the curves and the circles, and the 2D manifolds are named surfaces (i.e., plane, sphere). Relativity conceives whatever, thus including we, our devices and machinery be living in a higher dimensional differentiable Manifold M.

Readers may figure out what is meant as *differentiable Manifold *recalling the 2D surface of the Earth or the waves formed in a water surface by one point source, like the liquid manifolds above and below. To grab a modern understanding of what today is meant as a *measure *(also* *including the containers’ detections by the Tracking Triggers), we suggest to focus the multi-branched tree-like structures naturally arising in the figures below. In this example, a single point source perturbed the state initially flat of a liquid surface. Several deriving outcomes are the effect of that single disturbance:

- all of them equally real also when their measures are visibly different;
- after a perturbation, they are never visible completely identical outcomes;
- comparing different perturbations, they are never visible completely identical outcomes.

Going deeper to the rationale of all Triggers, these are the devices to label **with different Information**** different leaves of the ****foliation **M. **Thus, allowing us to eliminate an ambiguity whose nature is cleared by General Relativity. Here,**** ****to every point of a differentiable manifold can be attached a tangent space, say a vector space containing all possible directions along which one can pass through the point. The ambiguity derives by the fact that an infinity of time-like curves** *γ*u **with tangent vector, can be identified as*** world-line of an object*.

Two different reasonable geodesics join the points P and Q also on the particularly curved surface of a differentiable manifold

If the parameter *t** *on *γ* is such as to make the tangent vector unitary, then its physical meaning is that of the proper time *t** *of an object. A well known example in the infinite identical meridian lines, joining South and North pole of the manifold named Earth. In this case, ambiguity eliminated by labelling all meridians starting by one conventionally chosen as global reference. An extremal example of the basic problem in the figure above. Here, in the particularly curved surface of a manifold, two different equally reasonable geodesics joins the points P and Q . Visibly, two different fully equivalent time-like world-lines can be followed to go from a point to the other. An additional example considering the ramp of an airport, itself actually a portion of a differentiable manifold. Infinite trajectories are allowed to planes for landing or take-off. But, we know that some of them are more probable than others.

**Curved trajectory followed by an Antonov cargo plane taking-off a ramp of the Leipzig/Halle airport. Since 1833, epoch of the Hamiltonian formulation of Mechanics, it is conceived that an infinity of trajectories and related kinematics are followed by pilots and planes, when taking-off or landing a ramp. But only some trajectories are the persistent, constructive interferences we see.**** The ramp itself a smooth curved, differentiable manifold (**
**Financial Times, Ltd/2015)**

What are the trajectory and kinematic of the plane ? … all of them are possible, but only some of them are persistent constructive superpositions. Trying to figure out the kinematical properties of a container on a Conveyor or into a rotary Machine, the pulsed Radar spotting a single plane at time intervals, is replaced by the triad Clock-Encoder-Trigger. Thus making it possible to infer the containers’ kinematics in all Electronic Inspectors and in the Rotary Machines like Fillers, Labellers or Blowformers.

The interferential behaviour of the liquids mimics that experienced by all material particles, as demonstrated in 1927 by the great French physicist Louis de Broglie. Also quantum particles (for example, electrons and other quarks) composing all material bodies, overlap one another. Thus causing wavelike patterns unexpected from a macroscopic point of view. It is this characteristic of the matter which is being used in the quantum computation applications to obtain massive parallelism. Interference when reading off a new result mathematically related to multiple intermediate results of computation, without revealing what any of them are. Opposite than what some imagine, it is not the phenomenon named Entanglement the cause for the massive parallelism, rather merely *interference*. Like in the liquids in the figures above, Interference allows different realities to overlap, summing up destructive and constructive effects. Interference of what ? Of different branches of the differentiable manifold foliation M, say of distinct portions of the Multiverse.

Time

A physically meaningless arbitrary parameter

*“The time coordinate t, characterizing a foliation, is in the modern General Relativity theory reduced to just one of the four arbitrary and physically meaningless spacetime coordinates”*

And, what about the Time indicated by clocks lying in different outcoming branches of the foliation ? After 1915 different leaves of the foliation M may have different or equal Times and no one of them is less real than another. Space dimensionality is ≥4, however superior to the three dimensions we are *biologically equipped* *to perceive* and mathematically fully conceive. Einstein’s equations of General Relativity are invariant under reparametrization of their time coordinate. In brief, there is no longer any time. Since decades the symbol M conventionally identifying a manifold, has been replaced by another named *S. S *derives by the Latin language prefix of Superspace and a still more actual denomination makes frequently use of a Greek language prefix *hyper*space. The time coordinate *t* characterizing a foliation, is in the modern General Relativity theory reduced to just one of the four arbitrary coordinates. Most important, the **physically meaningless** spacetime coordinate. On the date when these notes have been compiled, a promising version of *the hyperspace *S *is considered to have at least 5 dimensions*, when some other versions of the theories adopt 26 dimensions. With reference to the example in the figure below, the hyperspace *S* is the manifold each of whose *points* A, B, C, … represents all of the infinite points in a 3D space:

- smooth lines numbered 19, 20, 21, 22 are wave crests of probability amplitude function ΨE (x, t), where E is the Energy, x a spatial coordinate and t the time parameter;
- dashed lines, same as before for an energy E + ΔE;
- S(G) and S’(G) are the Hamilton-Jacobi dynamical phases due to different waves. Their elliptic intersection points, magnified by the lens, regions of constructive interference.

** Imagine to have a lens powerful enough to magnify details <****10**^{-30 }cm. In this realm, it becomes possible to see the true nature of the Space. Hyperspace *S* (also named, Superspace) is the manifold each of whose ** points** A, B, C, … represents the infinite amount of points existing in a 3D space. The smooth lines numbered 19, 20, 21, 22 are wave crests of probability amplitude function Ψ

_{E }

**(x,**

*t*

**), where E is the Energy, x is a spatial coordinate and**t

**is**

**the time parameter. Dashed lines, the same for an energy E +**Δ

**E.**

**S(G) and S’(G) are the Hamilton-Jacobi dynamical phases due to different waves, their elliptic intersection points are regions of constructive interference. What we name**The

*particles*.**submanifold H of**

*S*

**is the classical history experienced by the geometry of that 3D space, when space has been started off under some particular set of dynamical initial conditions (**

**Wheeler, J. A.,**

*et al.*/1973)** **

What the figure before is showing is a dynamical geometric object (*geometro-dynamics* is* *a synonimous of *general relativistic*), describing the dynamics of the 3D spatial geometry. Namely, a propagation of the intrinsic curvature on space-like hypersurfaces with respect to a time coordinate *t* that labels a foliation of the spacetime. Spacetime dynamically arising by the succession of leaves.

3-geometry Contains Physical Time

The extrinsic curvature describing the embedding of the 3D geometries into 4D spacetime, is represented by the corresponding momenta. Therefore, the 3D-geometry, representing the dynamical state of General Relativity, is the carrier of information about physical time. It *contains physical time and not depend any more on it.* Below, four examples of the non-trivial consequences of the new point of view:

- all time-like distances are referred to an ‘initial’ place;
- given yesterday’s geometry, today’s geometry could not be the one of tomorrow’s;
- a mechanical clock is allowed to go ‘wrong’. Then, considering the example of a planet, one would have to know the initial angle and the initial rotation velocity in order to derive time from motion;
- a speed of ‘speed of time’ is a tautology.

Waves and manifolds are commonly associated. This also at the macroscopic scale of our industrial Machinery, equipments, inspection and detection devices. A full understanding of this last decisive concept is visually aided by the figure here at left side. Here, two gaussian wave pulses with a minimal amplitude difference, are travelling on a nondispersive string in opposite directions. Visibly, *they pass through each other and superimpose without any reciprocal disturbance*.

**Constructive interference showing the far reaching implications of the Principle of Superposition. T****wo gaussian wave pulses with a minimal amplitude difference, travelling ****in opposite directions on a nondispersive string. Visibly, they pass through each other without being disturbed. The net displacement is the sum of the two individual displacements **

The net displacement is the sum of the two individual displacements. Now, remember that a measurement instrument, whatever its technology, features a defined sensitivity, the stimulus' minimum amount, whose existence it can detect. As an example, set the sensitivity be equal to what in the graphics on side has the value 1, an we’ll have the net result of:

**what**dot-like objects shall be observed (measured), each one of them associated to an Information (named*Signal*):**where**the superposition reaches amplitudes >1;**when**the gating system of the measurement instrument (Trigger, detector or a complete electronic inspector) lies in one of those time intervals (the*inspection window*) allowing further processing.

The submanifold H of S is *the classical history experienced by the geometry of that 3-dimensional space positive definite*, when space has been started off under some particular set of dynamical initial conditions. An entire 3D space, can be imagined as something half-way between a true mathematical point and what a *point* represents in the hyperspace *S*. In particular, a temporary configuration of a:

*particle, ...is an Event*, a single point in the space-time;*space, ...is a 3-dimensional geometry*, a single point in the hyperspace*S.*

“An oscillating drop of water undergoes fission. The topology changes. A point marks the place of separation of the two masses of liquid. That point lacks the full neighborhood of points that characterizes a normal point. Such a critical point is ruled out from any proper manifold by the very definition of the term manifold in mathematics. Before the division, the surface of the drop constituted a manifold. After the division, it is again a manifold, consisting of two disparate pieces. At the instant of division it is not a manifold. But little attention does the drop pay to this distinction. It divides, despite all definitions. No more reason does one see in the definition of manifold* against *space changing its topology”

*John Archibald Wheeler, 1967*

** John Archibald Wheeler at Princeton, 1971. The one with the bald spot in the front row is the Italian relativist Tullio Regge (**
**R. Matthews/1976)**

Signalling, in the detectors and equipments part of the industrial Machinery is frequently electromagnetic. The most modern design address is toward the transition to fiber optic signalling between all equipments. Another widespread classic idea needing to be updated to the experimental reality known in the Third Millennium, regards the signalling. The public idea assumes that signalling is happening in a common 3D space: transmitter and receiver should be exchanging informations carried by energy moving through the 3D space the laymen think to be inhabiting. But, an arbitrary metric space A is defined to be *positive definite* if each of its finite subsets is positive definite with their induced metrics. 3-dimensional spaces have positive definite metric,** **what implies that **physical effects cannot propagate from one point of the 3D geometry to another**.

**The space-time manifold** M **as seen by the roditor perspective, looks flat and simple. The opposite than the topologies suggested, after comparison of theory and experiments. Then, the obvious question: “Why do we see a different (flat) reality ?” An answer is that we are not biologically equipped, in terms of amount of sensors and neurons, to perceive the fine details corresponding to extremely small time intervals. And, also if we’d be, then we’d not have enough memory where to record such an amount of informations**

Why ? Because a physical quantity local to a point, and another local to another point, have no reciprocal coupling: they commute. The meaning of the sentence above in bold characters has far reaching consequences. It implies that also the appearances of *material objects, a macroscopic case of the measurements* (and, triggerings) of the Electronic Inspectors and Industrial Machinery, *are exclusively happening between different 3-geometries* *where we, our electronic inspection devices and Machinery are existing*. The first clear idea of this by Minkowski, dated 1908, was valid only for the flat, idea Euclidean spaces. In 1967, these concepts were carried further by J. A. Wheeler, then the greatest living relativist. He was capable to establish a firm bridge between the two most successful physical theories, General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics.

** The ****YE-1 Compact Muon Solenoid, part of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), is a complex assemble of measurement instruments. The entire measurement process backed by a supercomputer, equipped with an impressive memory to record the huge flow of data following each collision event (**
**CERN/ 2006)**

Topology-Spinors connection

In other sections and until now, we spoke about the spacetime, looking at its topological properties. That is not all of the story and there is an additional property to consider: the spin. There is a criteria to identify a topologic variety as a candidate to be the master plan of the physical space where they happen binary classifications based on measurements. The same effects we observe on macroscopic objects or that we can logically infer, have to be autonomously rendered by that topology. Imagine a cube. Attached, like in the figure below, to four of its corners four elasting strings.

**Imagine a cube and four elastic strings attached to its corners. Select any axis running through the center of the cube and rotate the figure about that axis through 360º. The cube shall return to the original configuration, but not the strings. Strings shall be entangled and no way to untangle them. A 360º rotation alters the orientation entanglement relation between the cube and its surroundings (**
**abridged by J. A. Wheeler et al./1973)**

** **** **** When two surfaces are joint by different wormholes, full justice is made for the use of the mathematical term multiply connected space. The example above shows what they can be: 1) two multiply connected leaves; 2) a single multiply connected leaf joint in an area not visible in the image (**

**S. Hossenfelder/2014)**

Now, select any axis running through the center of the cube and rotate the figure about that axis through 360º. You’ll see the cube returning to the original configuration, but not the strings. Strings shall be entangled and no way to untangle them. The 360º rotation alters the orientation entanglement relation between the cube and its surroundings. Two successive rotations by 360º restore the original orientation of the cube and the strings can now be untangled. The spinor is a particular mathematical operator accounting for the effects of these rotations with respect to the origin of a triad of coordinate axis. Until now we spoke only of the rotation of a cube and its surroundings. Now, we’ll try to figure out what shall happen when the cube is slowly rotated through 360º when passing along the entire space of other geometric surroundings. We’ll discover that under the same identical rotation of 360º different 3-D closed manifolds can be fully classified by four properties:

- topology;
- differential structure;
- metric;
**spin structure.**

The figure below, next section, represents different kinds of 3-dimensional points. All of them are closed 3-dimensional geometries but six of them, labelled as:

D_{+} D_{-} E_{++} E_{-+} E_{+-} E_{--}

present the handles which let them be identified as *wormholes.* In a multiply connected space they have to be expected behaviours looking strange as seen from our many-3-geometries-at-once point of view. Imagine* *two identically coloured pink cubes.

**Gigantic or microscopic, they exist surfaces whose circumference is much smaller than their radius. A consequence of the elasticity of the space**** (**
**abridged by K. Thorne/1994) **

Also, oriented the same way with respect to a single triad. Let one of them enter the wormhole by one of its throats. Let the other cube move along the flat surface out of the handle, from the same throat where the other get in, til the other throat. You’ll discover they'll get rejoin themselves differently oriented with respect to the triad used as a reference when they get in ! This kind of geometric structures are an unavoidable feature of the space. As a matter of fact, surfaces like the one visible here at left side, whose circumference seen from the external (upper) side is much smaller than their radius, are really present at the small scales.

** **

**A Closed-Timelike-Curve** **(**
**abridged by Wald/1984) **

The Readers may immediately consider the risk to introduce Closed Timelike Curves (CTCs) in the structure of the space. These risks really exist applying the General Relativity theory without the *conditioning* of the modern version of the Principle of Superposition, of quantomechanical origin, object of deeper analysis in other sections. CTCs are constantly created, but on timescales extremely small (~10^{-}^{43} s), giving effects completely uneligible in our macroscopic measurements.

Triggers and Time

Simplest instance of Electronic Inspection Measurement devices:

a way to differentiate leaves otherwise similar

*“Triggers are a way to differentiate leaves otherwise undistinguishable”*

The synthetic and technological meaning of what preceded is that General Relativity, a theory made of worldpoints named Events, constitutes *a device to calculate and constructing a leaf of history that slices through the higher dimensional space *S whose dimensionality is ≥4. What above has relation with the purpose of the Triggers adopted in the industrial automated Quality Control (electronic inspection) and in the Machinery. Knowingly, the purpose is to *acquire Information *about the phase, state, dynamic or kinematic conditions of an object.

“...Detectors occupy a multitude of 3-dimensional leaves along a single constructive interference crest”

** 4D multiply connected manifold. The foliated character of space is here distinctly visible, jointly with those topologic peculiarities whose crest values in the multitude of constructive interfences, we name Events or Measurements. Each one of the differently coloured volumes visible is 4D. Each one black dot is a 3D volume: e**ach one of the ** points** A, B, C,… contains the infinite amount of points existing in a 3D space. The smooth lines numbered 19, 20, 21, 22 are wave crests of probability amplitude function ΨE

**(x, t), where E is the Energy, x a spatial coordinate and t the time parameter. Dashed lines, the same for an energy E +**Δ

**E.**

**S(G) and S’(G) are the Hamilton-Jacobi dynamical phases due to different waves, their elliptic intersection points being regions of constructive interference, what we name**

*particles*.**In the year 2000, it has been discovered (Deutsch, 2000) that the information flow at the quantum level follows the basic rules of the flow of information between different 3-geometries in a multiply connected 4D manifold like the one here depicted (abridged by**

**Wheeler, J. A., et al./1973)**

That a triad:

- Clock,
- Encoder,
- Trigger,

is the necessary and sufficient precondition to let a microprocessor have information about the presence of objects and their kinematic, is a basic notion. But what is the rationale for that necessity to “*acquire Information” ?* The reason is that the Triggers, are *a way to differentiate leaves otherwise undistinguishable. * There is always at least one Trigger introducing objects into the Shifting-Registers. Shifting-Registers *clocked* (**Time**-related) and counting the Encoder pulses.

*“...measurements (and, triggerings) of the Electronic Inspectors, are exclusively happening between different 3-geometries where we, our devices and Machinery, exist”*

The figure above shows portion of the multiply connected manifold seen in the figure immediately before. It is a bi-dimensional representation limited to the leaves A, B, C, D+ and D_ in a representation privileging Time evolution. Here, *Ψ**E*** **(x,** ***t*) is a probability amplitude function, E is the Energy and x a spatial coordinate. What it is showing is a different way to visualise coexistence and separate evolution of several different 3D spaces. In red colour we highlighted areas of interference. All interferential phenomena are those where what is observed depends on what has been happening in more than one Universe. Looks too complex ? Not that much, when thinking that Nature** **adopts similar designs also at our macroscopic scales. Below, an example of botanical branchings. The cuts reveal the inner foliated structure: a geometric dynamical reality referred to a foliated 3D space which, having existence extended along the Time-dimension, is a 4D space foliated with 3D spaces.

** **** ****Physics means “Nature”, and the foliations to whom General Relativity refers are natural. Nature organizes also its botanical structures ****foliating the fiber bundles to occupy the available space**

**The annual rings of the trees are one of the many ways a physical foliation may present itself**

But, yet in 1967 it was suggested that the space-time of 1915 does not exist. On the opposite, it is just one of the ways we perceive the fundamental Quantum Field. The idea received contributions by many, some of them nobelists. Between them Paul Dirac, Higgs, Bergmann, Pirani, Arnowitt, Deser, Bryce DeWitt, Charles Misner and John Archibald Wheeler.

Time Today

*“We, and our Detectors, occupy a multitude of 3D leaves along a single constructive interference crest. *

*And that’s why we feel the effect of Time named *Dynamics”

It is known that the nature of Time and its very existence are since thousands of years object of innumerable philosophical discussions. Yet 1-2 centuries ago mathematicians and physicists as Leibniz and Ernst Mach debated against the then dominating idea of absolute Time. Until recently, the evidences against the idea of Time as a fundamental of Physics, were only philosophical or logic. In 2013 the concept of Time had been experimentally proved *derived,* rather than fundamental. Time reduced to just an apparent effect of that particular kind of relation named *Entanglement* of a multitude of individual measurements happenings between different 3D spaces, foliated to form a 4D. We, and our Detectors, occupy a multitude of these 3D leaves along a single constructive interference crest. And that’s why we feel the effect of Time named *Dynamics. *In this way, spatial geometry itself becomes a physical clock, and the program of Leibniz and Mach may finally be fully taken into account by completely eliminating any relic of absolute time.

Links to pages on related subjects:

### Introduction￼In the Industrial Automation and Electronic Inspection fields, however named and operatively disguised, Triggers play the role of the most elementary measurement instruments. Simpler than any single-channel (e.g., the High Frequency fill level inspection) or multi-channel (for example, all camera-based inspections) analog-digital variable measurement system, and a permanent input device to the Programmable Logic Controllers' (PLCs) for the automations. …

### Objects and Measurements’ hidden Nature ￼￼ In 1915 Einstein extended Relativity Theory to include also some of the ideas underlined by the figure on side. To every point of a curved differentiable manifold …

### Triggers. Sharp and Unsharp Signals￼Triggered is said of Events with the most strict kind of correlation which may be imagined: the causative. Their effects are other Events. After the introduction given here…

### Classic ViewAll the engineers engaged on a daily base with calibration operations in the equipments and machinery part of Food and Beverage Production Lines, know they continously apply an idea named Principle of Superposition. …

### The Far Reaching Consequences of aPh.D Dissertation￼When treating the ideas of Relativity, we saw the Relativity Principle implying infinite 3D spaces associated to each instant of time, which in turn implies that the world is at least 4-dimensional. …

### Quantum in Brief￼ ￼With reference to the figure on side, a quantum system is specified by: Hilbert space H : a subset of the Banach space, whose rays are non-nil complex-valued vectors each of them representing possible states of a physical system.…

Links to pages on other subjects:

### Total Cost of Ownership of a Full Containers Electronic Inspector, on base of its Fill Level Inspection Technology￼Counting the number of Technologies existing for the measurement of the fill level in Bottling Lines, we encounter at least seven different. …

### When thinking to its applications in the industrial Machinery and equipments, whoever thinks to know what is a Trigger. Their most known examples all Container Presence electromagnetic detectors (i.e., photoelectric, inductive, by mean of ultrasounds, Gamma-rays) which let the Machinery operate. …

### A Fundamental QuestionWhat Detectors detect? Their purpose is known: the conversion of light (photons) into electric currents (electrons). Photodetectors are among the most common optoelectronic devices; they automatically record pictures in the Electronic Inspectors’ cameras, the presence of labels in the Label Inspectors or the fallen bottles lying in a Conveyor belt. …

### IntroductionThe light generated by a LASER LED in the figure above may be used to detect an excessive inclination or height of a closure, and also the filling level of a beverage in a transparent container. …

### ￼The subject of Classification is studied by Statistics and Applied Probability Theory. It is concerned with the investigation of sets of objects in order to establish if they can be summarized in terms of a small number of classes of similar objects. …

### An optical rotary joint using injection moulded collimating optics (￼ Poisel, Ohm University of Applied Sciences/2013) Runt pulses & nonclassic Packaging Controls’ components ￼ ￼ ￼ ￼￼ Also consumer cameras use a Trigger. …

### Inspections in a Decohering EnvironmentWhat is a Measurement ?￼Measurement’s nature is like time, one those things we all know until we have to explain it to someone else. Explanation invariably passing thru the idea of comparison between a standard established before and something else. …

### First In First Out Application to Food & Beverage packaging an ideadeveloped to handle the highest ProductionFIFO (First-In-First-Out) concept started to be applied some decades ago to industrial productions, specifically to manage the highest speed production lines. …

- Fill level inspection tech: a TCO point of view
- Physics of Triggering
- What Detectors detect ?
- Electromagnetic Measurements of Food, Beverages and Pharma: an Information Retrieval problem
- Binary Classification fundamentals
- Electronic Inspectors’ nonclassic components
- Measures in a Decohering Environment
- FIFO: Bottling Quality Control applications of an idea born to manage the highest production performances
- Photodetectors fundamental definitions
- Media download
- Containers