topology of the saff-sequen 4096x2460@1x















The “Device”

The Industrial Machinery has plenty of Devices, vital to let them operate.  Why a team including many thousands of physicists and engineers, participating to Manhattan Project, named “Device” what detonated first time in the New Mexico desert?  It’ll become more clear in the following. Deeply examining its triggering, we’ll discover a tree-like de Moivre causal structure.


 Fusing, considered the Root Cause of whatever explosion, is just one superimposed component of an extremely longer sequence of conditions before and after, greater and smaller, than the Fuzing.  Visible the stepped sequence of states of the chemical explosives until implosion of Device's total 126.2 kg of Plutonium and Uranium.  An irreversible sequence of states comprised between the firing of 32 detonators and the final nuclear fission, chain reaction and following detonation 


One admitting reversible macroscopic actions, until reaching a certain state.  After that state, the sequence becomes irreversible, admitting nearly (“nearly” meaning >99.999… % ) just a single temporary state visible in the animation above: the device detonation.  Fusing is a sensitive subject and, when describing nuclear weapons' fusing, still more sensitive.  What follows had been impossible to write until a few years ago, when some informations reached the public domain.  The subjects of fusing and triggering are strictly intertwined with the central idea of Root Cause Analysis, the causal relation. Their deep study allows to understand what is unclear to the majority of the root cause Analysist or Problem Solvers.  Say, that the idea of causal relation, as the divide between a Cause and an Effect, is obsolete.  And, closely looking matter and radiation of which all is made, it is a myth.  Finally, the exam of the fusing system of the nuclear weapons constitutes a reference of good-practices when Designing a system, Industrial Machinery included, which have to assure its function in the harshest thinkable conditions.



 The triggering procedure of all nuclear weapons is commonly named SAFF-sequence.  It is particularly complex, backed-up by, and interlocked with other systems.   Much more conditioned than the conventional bombs adopting chemical high explosives (HE).   At the centre of the model visible above the historic implosion A-bomb.   All around the central red coloured initiator, a Beryllium-Polonium neutrons’ source tagged (1), a nucleus of Plutonium-239 weighing 6.2 kg tagged (2) and a neutron reflector of depleted Uranium-238 weighing 120 kg and tagged (4)    (  RIA Novosti/2014)









A Tree-like Irreversible Structure

At the centre of the model visible in the figure above, the historic implosion A-bomb.  All around the Beryllium-Polonium central red coloured neutrons’ source tagged (1), a nucleus of Plutonium-239 weighing 6.2 kg tagged (2) and a neutron reflector of Uranium-238 weighing 120 kg, tagged (4).           

conventional weapon fuze med hr


Its detonation releases an energy of 88 terajoule, equivalent to 21 kiloton of TNT.  The Safing-Arming-Fusing-Firing sequence which lets this Device implode and detonate, is a tree-like irreversible structure.   The effect of some of the Events cannot be reversed.  An electric Trigger cabling ignites the chemical high explosives compressing the fissile material inner hemispheres.  The electric Trigger carries a signal deriving by the superposition of several arming, fuzing and firing conditions related to mechanic, electric, radar and barometric devices.   In our special case the arming and fusing system consisted of: 

  • 2 timers, in parallel, set to 15 seconds for safing and arming plugs, wired in series with a second parallel pair, appeared to satisfy requirements for certainty of operation and safety against inadvertent early arming;
  • 6 barometric switches, connected in parallel; 
  • 4 radars, connected in parallel, with an effective range of only < 800 m, equipped with the Yagi antennas patented a few months before (see figure below), tunable (325-485) MHz;

 

  The modern fuze of a conventional HE weapon is a complex kind of Trigger.  The weapon, non visible in the figure at left side, presents at least five Safeties:  (a) Mechanic, the Fuze on side has to be introduced into the weapon;  (b) Mechanic, insertion of the arming wire;  (c) Mechanic, removal the red coloured tagged metal safety pin;  (d) Electronics, a Safe Time setting;  (e) Electronics, a Burst Height setting.   They are Conditions given in a specific time-ordered sequence where the fifth Event (“Burst Height reached”) plays the role of Root Cause for the firing action.  Finally, detonation’s Root Cause is the last firing action (e) because changes the state of the HE weapon.  HE is a highly exothermal enthropic object, something totally irreversible (  Reutech/2014) 





The original US Patent, filed Nov. 17, 1944, of the folded dipole Yagi antenna.  In the “Device” four of these elements were installed as part of a redundant Radar system.  When an altitude ~ 1600 m was reached, they triggered the start of the transfer of electricity from the batteries to the electric Capacitors. Capacitors later rapidly discharged in tens of detonators (  USPTO/2014)  

The Barometric sensors switched at the atmospheric pressure expected to be associated to an altitude of ~1670 m.   Their change of state, triggered the Radar units, as the weapon neared the detonation altitude of ~600 m.   At least 2 of the 4 radars had to agree that the Radar return signal from the ground was compatible with the correct altitude, sending this signal relay back to the fuzing system electronics named Clock Box, visible open in a black and white figure below.   The interconnection of series and parallel was determined by the internal wiring of the “Clock Box”, from where gets out the final firing signal.



Close-up on Reversible and 

Irreversible Processes

In the present case, what plays the role of detonation’s Root Cause is the last event (8. firing) in the Time-ordered sequence: 




  1. mechanical arming in the plane, introducing the central Beryllium-Polonium initiator [tagged (1)] and the Plutonium-239 nucleus [tagged (2)] when approaching the target;
  2. mechanical arming in the plane, introducing the missing high-explosive lens [one of them visible above tagged (5)], when approaching the target;
  3. device release at an altitude ranging (10300-10700) m;
  4. electrical arming, when the device starts to fall by the plane. The weapon was released from the bomb bay; Connected to the aircraft by pull-out wires attached to the first set of clock switches, as the bombs left the bomb bay these wires were pulled-out activating the timers;
  5. time arming.  15 seconds after bomb release, when the weapon had fallen 1200 m, the Timer switches closed part of the firing circuit;
  6. barometric arming.  When reached an altitude ~1670 m, the barometric switches closed another part of the firing circuit, allowing flow of electrical current from the batteries in the bomb to: (a) charge electric Capacitors and (b) turn on the Radar fuses;
  7. radar arming.  At an altitude of ~600 m, the emitted Radar signals reflecting from the ground, completed the final part of the firing circuit triggering the detonation signal thru the “Clock Box”;
  8. firing.  Electrons discharge from the Capacitors (see figure below) into the 32 detonators (above tagged (6), firing the High Explosive lenses imploding the Uranium-238 and the Plutonium-239 core with Beryllium initiator inside, until the critical mass starting a chain reaction. 


Root Cause and Conditions

Root Cause is the last step, the  8.  firing when 32 Exploding BridgeWire (EBW) detonators were powered by the discharge of the high voltage in the Capacitors.   In the EBW detonators, see figure below, the wire is heated so quickly by the high firing current that the wire vaporizes and explodes due to electric resistance heating.   The time precision and consistency of EBWs is less than 25 ns, allowing to synchronise the tens of Detonators’ acting as explosive’ initiator.  In the figure above they are tagged (6).    They ignite the chemical high-explosives to detonate until imploding the central masses of radioactive metal, to let them reach the critical mass.  This habit to attribute to the last step the role of Root Cause for an Effect of a mind-boggling serie of precedent causes, considering them mere “Conditions”, hides an ambiguity.   Ambiguity physically replicated in the many branchings (states) whose information difference is just 1 bit or leaves extremely close to the one at the onset of the Root Cause. 


  The batteries, discharged themselves in the Capacitors when reaching the state 6. of barometric arming at an altitude of 1670 m.  Capacitors discharged to the 32 detonators at the state 8. “firing”.  An electromechanic circuit, including relays, resistors, capacitors, fuses and batteries (   Los Alamos National Laboratory/2014).   


ebw detonators med

  In the Exploding Bridge-Wire (EBW) detonators a 1-mm long wire is heated so quickly by the high firing current that the wire vaporizes and explodes due to electric resistance heating.  That electrical driven explosion then fires the detonator's initiator explosive (abridged by   Timo Halen/CC 2.5/2006) 

The entire sequence of Conditions determines that particular state of an object named Effect.  Looking the entire sequence in its correct aspect, a tree-like time-ordered sequence, it is just and only that last action immediately before the Effect, what creates the branch named Effect.   All the precedents causes are named “Conditions” because, on the opposite, by each one of them they may branch-out several effects completely different than what Root Cause Analysis and Actuarial Science define Incident.  Going much deeper, we observe the entire SAFF-sequence (Safing-Arming-Fuzing-Firing) as just few intermediate step before the many followings, until the 2.5 times compression of the inner masses of Plutonium, what really and only releases the energy.   

In other words: 

...the limit on the space-time scale we imposes as boundary for what we want to describe by mean of the classical paradigms of Cause and Effect, defines what is Cause and what is Effect.

The firing, always considered the Root Cause of whatever explosion, is just one superimposed component of an extremely longer sequence of statebefore and after, greater and smaller, than the Fuzing.  Reducing the Fusing relevance, classically considered decisive to just ...the last condition immediately before an Effect.

thew device at tinian islan med hr




   The “Device” being finally assembled at Tinian Island.  Visible the wiring allowing to discharge the high voltage electric energy from the Capacitors to the 32 Exploding Bridge Wire detonators (   Los Alamos National Laboratory/2014)









This browser cannot play the embedded video file.

   Fuzing or, Triggering, always considered Root Cause of whatever explosion, is just one superimposed component of an extremely longer sequence of states.   States, themselves Conditions, given before and after in Time, greater and smaller in Space, than the Fuze or Trigger.  It is the Root Cause of Effects observable within the space-time section we decide to play the role of Domain.  The video shows how many more sequences of Causes-Effects later have to happen at the subatomic scale, before the detonation. By a single neutron three more derive, finally implying a chain reaction             AJ Software & Multimedia/2014)


The Complete Story

“Safing-Arming-Fuzing-Firing (SAFF) sequence which let this device implode and detonate, is a tree-like partially irreversible structure”



Refer to the figure below, showing a historical tree-like structure around the point “q” corresponding to the content of the slice (or leaf, or sheet) including the Plutonium-based implosion-Device commonly named “Fat Man”.  Imagine to label as “successful” all of the outcomes where the implosion-Device detonates 600 m over the target, the centre of Nagasaki, Japan, on 9 August 1945.  The place where acted the Root Cause named firing (SAFF-phase 8.).    In the figure, each one vertex is a new superposed State of the superposition of the electronic components, cables, connectors, etc. included in the SAFF-system aboard “Fat Man”’s.   Each vertex exists in the State Space and cannot be felt in that 4-dimensional useful approximation, named Physical Space, of the higher-dimensional (>9 dimensions) reality.  Thus, mapping one-by-one all possible changes intervened before and after the firing.

 A biconical section of the real historical tree-like structure around the point “q”  corresponding to the content of the 3-D slice (or leaf, or sheet) including the SAFF-system into the Clock Box aboard the implosion-Device, on August 9, 1945.  The place where acted the Root Cause firing.  As an example of what happened in other Future unsuccessful branches: the relay, controlled by the firing signal, switching the energy accumulated in the Capacitors failed to switch.  Its contacts glued because oxidised by the sparks associated to too many precedent tests at Tinian island.  This unsuccessful outcome  in a multitude of other branches, determining intermediate outcomes, not implying that relay’s failure.  Implying, as an example, that the Device detonated too high over the target, limiting the damages. 

  • Yellow-coloured  subset of all of the initial conditions including the “ Device's” design, construction, testing at Tinian and dropping;
  • Red-coloured  unsuccessful subset of all of the outcomes.  Set of all of the branches where a negative effect arose by the Root Cause;
  • Green-coloured  successful subset of all of the outcomes.  Set of all of the branches where a positive effect arose by the Root Cause














“...lattice structure intimating the reality of how parallel computing is going on in different branches”

The graphic before has to be imagined as just a subsection, result of our selection privileging a univoquely defined vertex (q).   Univoquely defined how?   By the sum of its Past branches.   It exists just a single superposition of Past branches originating the interference we name: “q”.  All of the others, many extremely different and some surely similar, are different for not less than 1 bit.  Then, at least in principle, they may be differentiated.  The large scale image from which we excerpted the graphic above, resembles the one in the figure below.   Visibly, there are many other interferences close to “q”, corresponding to states similar between themselves and similar to “q”.  Also well visible how nor one of them can correspond or may be confused with the state “q”.  The entire set of the interferences and superpositions from whom any other derive, is different than any other.   If the amount of Information we are instrumentally equipped to derive by a measurement should be reduced to ~1 bit, then an ambiguity should surely arise.   Arising in the attribution to the last step immediately before the Effect, of the role of its Root Cause.  The causes are all the decisions and conditions preceding the Root Cause.   Visibly, vertexes very far one from the other may originate by (then being in the Future of…) exactly the same set of Past states, aka causes. The ambiguity has a physical parallel in the multitude of branches (or, states) whose information difference is just 1 bit.   As seen by General Relativity's perspective, leaves extremely close to the one at the onset of the Root Cause.  Meaning that they exist many ways, whose difference is so slight we nearly cannot perceive, to go from a Past state at the point “p” to a Future state at the point “q”.  The structure below illustrates the deep physical meaning of the word history.  Also, a lattice structure intimating the reality of how parallel computing is going on in different branches.  An extremely modern cosmological viewpoint.  One capable to provide a fitting eigenvalue otherwise impossible to compute in so short time, in correspondence to each of the physical properties of all existing material particle.

The graphic before has to be imagined as just a subsection, result of our selection privileging a univoquely defined vertex (q).  Univoquely defined how ?   By the sum of its Past branches.   It exists just a single superposition of Past branches originating the interference we name: “q”.   All of the others, however similar, are different for not less than 1 bit.  Then, at least in principle, they may be differentiated.   The large scale image from which we excerpted the graphic above, resembles much more the one in the figure below.   Visibly, there are many other interferences close to “q”, corresponding to states similar between themselves and similar to “q”.   Also well visible how nor one of them can correspond or may be confused with the state “q”.   The entire set of the interferences and superpositions from whom any other derive, is different than any other.  The reticular structure below well illustrates the deep physical meaning of the word history.



Random variables are points. Each point a projection in the Sample Space of objects’ properties. Objects’ properties having their full existence in the State Space.  The function manifests the relation existing between these two spaces.  On side are shown in red and blue color two different functions.  As an example: red could represent the transfer function of the Energy of a X-ray photon and blue the transfer function of the Polarisation of the same photon.  Distinct physical  properties of a single object, whose values appear like two random variables when measured by mean of two measurement devices (e.g., a X-ray phototransistor and a X-ray polarimeter), in their own Sample Spaces.  Part of the individual points in the Sample Space are simultaneously related to several points in the State Space
 Reticular structure hinting to the complexity of the state function.  Passing from State to Superposition then Interfering and returning a State, then splitting again to a Superposition of States.   An ambiguity lies in the attribution to the last step immediately before the Effect, of the role of its Root Cause.  The Causes are all the decisions and conditions preceding the Root Cause.   Ambiguity physically existing in the multitude of branches (or, states) whose information difference is just 1 bit.  Leaves extremely close to the one at the onset of the Root Cause, as seen by General Relativity's perspective.   Meaning that they exist many ways, whose difference is so slight we nearly cannot perceive, to go from a Past state at the point p to a Future state at the point q (image credit leafcutterjohn.com, 2014)  .  Lattice structure hinting to the complexity of the state function.  A lattice structure intimating the reality of parallel computing going on in different branches.  Passing from State to Superposition then Interfering and returning a State, then splitting again to a Superposition of States.   An ambiguity lies in the attribution to the last step immediately before the Effect, of the role of its Root Cause.  The Causes are all the decisions and conditions preceding the Root Cause.   Ambiguity physically existing in the multitude of branches (or, states) whose information difference is just 1 bit.  Leaves extremely close to the one at the onset of the Root Cause, as seen by General Relativity's perspective.   Meaning that they exist many ways, whose difference is so slight we nearly cannot perceive, to go from a Past state at the point p to a Future state at the point q ( leafcutterjohn.com/2014)

 Lattice structure hinting to the complexity of the state function.  This lattice structure makes distinctly visible parallel compution in different branches.  Passing from State to Superposition then Interfering and returning a State, then splitting again to a Superposition of States.   An ambiguity lies in the attribution to the last step immediately before the Effect, of the role of its Root Cause.  The Causes are all the decisions and conditions preceding the Root Cause.   Ambiguity physically existing in the multitude of branches (or, states) whose information difference is just 1 bit.  Leaves extremely close to the one at the onset of the Root Cause, as seen by General Relativity's perspective.   Meaning that they exist many ways, whose difference is so slight we nearly cannot perceive, to go from a Past state at the point p to a Future state at the point q (  leafcutterjohn.com/2014)



Measurements’ Redundancy Role

“The entire sequence of Conditions determines that particular state of an object named Effect.  

Looking the entire sequence in its correct aspect, a tree-like time-ordered sequence, it is just and only that last action immediately before the Effect, what creates the branch named Effect.    

All the precedents causes are named “Conditions” because, on the opposite, by each one of them may branch-out several effects completely different than what Root Cause Analysis and Actuarial Science define an "Incident”

The Designer of the SAFF-system sequence, the physicist Robert Bigham Brode, imagined a particularly redundant system including: 

  • 6  Barometric switches connected in parallel, to limit to an altitude ~1670 m, that causing a flow of electrical current from the batteries in the bomb to:  (a) charge electric Capacitors and (b) to the Radar fuses;
  • 4  Radars connected in parallel, with an effective range of < 800 m, to enable the Capacitors’ discharge ~ 600 m above the ground, originating the Effect named firing, Root Cause of the detonation.   

Redundancy in the Barometric and Radar Detectors, joint with the exclusive Condition preventing Radars’ arming without agreement of at least 2 of the 4 Radars allows to maximise the separation of the subset of the Successful outcomes' states by the Unsuccessful outcomes' states In the framework of Signal Theory, redundancy on the amount of Detectors’ making independent measurements of the same property of the same object, acts allowing more precise estimation of the true value of the random variable.  Refer to the figure below.  In the same classic framework, to have an infinite amount of Detectors is the equivalent of the observation of the entire State Space from an infinite amount of Sample Spaces, by mean of the observation of an infinity of random variables.  Thus reconstructing the totality of the fine-details forming what is a physical Property.  True value that in the classic approximation we always know only approximately because: 

  • registering random variables in a reduced amount of Sample Spaces;
  • having available only a limited time to observe and record random values.


 Random variables are points. Each point a projection in the Sample Space of objects’ properties. Objects’ properties having their full existence in the State Space.  The function manifests the relation existing between these two spaces.  On side are shown in red and blue color two different functions.  As an example: red could represent the transfer function of the Energy of a X-ray photon and blue the transfer function of the Polarisation of the same photon.  Distinct physical  properties of a single object, whose values appear like two random variables when measured by mean of two measurement devices (e.g., a X-ray phototransistor and a X-ray polarimeter), in their own Sample Spaces.  Part of the individual points in the Sample Space are simultaneously related to several points in the State Space



Designer's Role



modern principle of superpo med hr

Robert Bigham Brode before to design the “Device”’s SAFF-sequence, focused all outcomes he could think.   Those particular Successful and Unsuccessful outcomes were   branched before into his own mind.   Human-mind itself part of the State Space.   The Reader can immediately understand that, thinking those components and relating them with that logic, the Designer:

  1. maximised the amount of branches marked with yellow colour as Conditions, thus occupying a wide Space in the State Space;
  2. minimised the amount of branches marked with red colour as Unsuccessful outcomes, thus forcing them in a small Space in the State Space;
  3. maximised the amount of branches marked with green colour as Successful outcomesthus occupying a wide Space in the State Space.








“...start to to visualize all possible combinations of failures of these 32 separate and independent wirings.  

You’ll discover immediately the number 4 294 967 296

Amount giving Us a clue to the enormous amount of branches where ...Nagasaki never became famous abroad”

From where they get out the Designer's choices maximising the last point 3. Successful outcomes?   The answer to this question, frankly speaking, probably was given yet over twenty five centuries ago it. When Greek philosophers conjectured that we only pick up some ideas, floating in the multitude of the pre-existing ideas.  The concept of stateState Space, in the  is in some way reminiscent of that ancient conjecture, when taking in due consideration that in the State Space each state includes all possible future outcomes.  Meaning that at the point q when and where the firing circuit discharged the Capacitors in the 32 Detonators, all possible future outcomes existed in superposition.   However, a kind of existence far from our common sense and perception.   One which can only be fully defined in mathematical terms in an abstract space (Hilbert) where all of the possible outcomes of an action exist before the action.  

   


What No Designer Can Do

Brode, Designer of the “Device”’s SAFF-sequence, has not really excluded all Unsuccessful outcomes.  As an example, it could have been enough to have a mechanical failure at the start of the dropping phase, when the bomb left the plane, affecting just one of the 32 conductors carrying power to the detonators.   All of the following branches of the time-ordered SAFF-sequence would have been fulfilled as thinked by Brode.  But, it had yet been calculated that the missing detonation of just one of the 32 chemical explosives should have prevented the spherical simmetry implosion resulting in the nuclear chain reaction, reducing it to one of 2.4 ton of conventional explosive. 

Let us define the number of degrees of freedom N of the system to be the natural logarithm of the dimension N of its Hilbert space H:


                    N  =  ln N  =  ln dim(H )


The number of degrees of freedom is equal to the number of bits of information needed to characterize a state.   Now, try to visualize all possible combinations of failures of these 32 independent conductors powering the EBW detonators.


  The tree-like historical state structure, has branches tagged as Successful outcomes, corresponding to a detonation of maximum yield, if and only if the 32 concentric HE lenses explode in a highly synchronised way.  Each EBW has to feature time precision ~ 25 ns












The number of degrees of freedom N of the system composed by 32 independent conductors, partially visible above in the photo shot at Tinian, whose dimension in the Hilbert space has  N  =  232 states, is:  


            =   4 294 967 296  ln 2   degrees of freedom    


This number gives at least a clue to the enormous amount of branches where ...Nagasaki never became famous abroad.  Below an example.  In the upper images, a zoom of Nagasaki industrial area at 11:02 a.m of August 9, 1945.  Lower images, the state after an aerial reconnassaince flight in the branch following the Successful and Unsuccessful outcome branches.  The lower right side frame is the state deriving by the failure of one of the cables powering the 32 detonators.  The upper images are the same image and what you front is the visible aspect of a bifurcation at 11:02 a.m of August 9, 1945.   Is this a new point of view ?    Not really.    

   Frames like sections of two different branches, zoomed in Nagasaki’s industrial area.  Time evolves Up to Down.  At left side, the past state of our own branches.  At right side, the same past time in another branch.  The Reader has to remember that since 1908 Minkowski demonstrated that each one instant of Time corresponds to infinite spaces.  These aerial reconnassaince shots are then showing that idea of Relativity in the modern framework of Quantum Mechanics








It is reminiscent of the demonstration given in 1907 by the mathematician Hermann Minkowski, about the coexistence of infinite 3-dimensional spaces, rather than one, referred to each one instant of Time.   By the words of Albert Einstein in 1952: “...there is an infinite number of spaces, which are in motion with respect to each other”.  Finally, start to think the entire “Device”, and not only its wiring from the capacitors to the detonators, as a superposition of many smaller components, and you’ll reach some limits coherent with the smallest and shortest duration “particles”.   State Space encases these Events and many others.  Reapply the same logic above to all Device’s components: you’ll front a colossal superposition describing all what the State of the “Device” is, as seen from a superior non-human point of view.  Point of view which can be followed in all its details and implications only by mean of a mathematical approach.

Successful Design Outcome. What no Designer can do

Brode, Designer of the “Device”’s SAFF-sequence, has not really excluded all Unsuccessful outcomes.   As an example, it could have been enough to have a mechanical failure at the start of the dropping phase, when the bomb left the plane, affecting just one of the 32 conductors carrying power to the detonators.    All of the following branches of the time-ordered SAFF-sequence would have been fulfilled as thinked by Brode.    But, it had yet been calculated that the missing detonation of just one of the 32 chemical explosives should have prevented the spherical simmetry implosion resulting in the nuclear chain reaction, reducing it to one of 2.4 ton of conventional explosive. The number of degrees of freedom N of the system composed by 32 independent conductors, partially visible above in the photo shot at Tinian, whose dimension in the Hilbert space has  N  =  232 states, is:  



          N   =   4 294 967 296  ln 2   degrees of freedom    



This number gives at least a clue to the enormous amount of branches where ...Nagasaki never became famous abroad.   Below an example.  In the upper images, a zoom of Nagasaki industrial area at 11:02 a.m of August 9, 1945.   Lower images, the state after an aerial reconnassaince flight in the branch following the Successful and Unsuccessful outcome branches.   The lower right side frame is the state deriving by the failure of one of the cables powering the 32 detonators.   The upper images are the same image and what you front is the visible aspect of a bifurcation at 11:02 a.m of August 9, 1945.   Is this a new point of view ?    Not really.    It is reminiscent of the demonstration given in 1907 by the mathematician Hermann Minkowski, about the coexistence of infinite 3-dimensional spaces, rather than one, referred to each one instant of Time.    By the words of Albert Einstein in 1952: “...there is an infinite number of spaces, which are in motion with respect to each other”.  Finally, start to think the entire “Device”, and not only its wiring from the capacitors to the detonators, as a superposition of many smaller components, and you’ll reach some limits coherent with the smallest and shortest duration “particles”.   State Space encases these Events and many others.    Reapply the same logic above to all “Device”’s components and you’ll have in front a colossal superposition describing all what the State of the “Device” is, as seen from a superior non-human point of view.    Point of view which can be followed in all its details and implications only by mean of a mathematical approach.  Example  

Megadeaths' SAFF















We conclude here this Case Study which examined the Root Cause Analysis of the detonation of the 21 kton implosion-Device, with a practical example of SAFF-sequence, not less real than the precedent.    Experiments made after Nagasaki showed to be the ground level and not 600 m the altitude providing the maximum Effects.   Also, the Radars on-board the Device could be jammed by Enemies from the ground.

Thus, the sequence appearing in the video below presents one additional condition, today applied to nearly all nuclear weapons, the “Impact-condition”, appearing armed in the last 3 minutes of the Oscar-nominated Stanley Kubrick’s “Dr. Strangelove” and makes no more use of the Radars.   The SAFF-sequence appears here interrupted by a missing Condition, the interlocked signal “bombs' bay doors open”, when the doors fail to open compelling the Crew to force manually this last step until the Successful outcome.

 The “Device” is a superposition of many smaller components.  Follow all of them you’ll reach limits coherent with the smallest and shortest duration “particles”.   Before, along and after a detonation they experience billions of billions of mutual correlations and of correlations with the Environment.  State space encases these Events and many others.  Reapply the same logic before to all the Device’s components: you’ll front a colossal superposition describing all what the state (or wavefunction) of the “Device” is, as seen from a superior non-human point of view



Example  

MegaDeaths' SAFF







We conclude here this Case Study which examined the Root Cause Analysis of the detonation of the 21 kton implosion-Device, with a practical example of SAFF-sequence, not less real than the precedent.  Experiments made after Nagasaki showed to be the ground level and not 600 m the altitude providing the maximum Effects.  Also, the Radars on-board the Device could be jammed by Enemies from the ground.  Thus, the sequence appearing in the video below presents one additional condition, today applied to nearly all nuclear weapons, the “Impact-condition”, appearing armed in the last 3 minutes of the Oscar-nominated Stanley Kubrick’s “Dr. Strangelove” and makes no more use of the Radars.   The SAFF-sequence appears here interrupted by a missing Condition, the interlocked signal “bombs' bay doors open”, when the doors fail to open compelling the Crew to force manually this last step until the Successful outcome.

  Safing-Arming-Fusing-Firing a multi-megaton H-bomb in Stanley Kubrick's film “Dr. Strangelove”



Links to the other Case Studies:




This website has no affiliation with, endorsement, sponsorship, or support of Heuft Systemtechnik GmbH, MingJia Packaging Inspection Tech Co., Pressco Technology Inc., miho Inspektionsysteme GmbH, Krones AG, KHS GmbH, Bbull Technology, Industrial Dynamics Co., FT System srl, Cognex Co., ICS Inex Inspection Systems, Mettler-Toledo Inc., Logics & Controls srl, Symplex Vision Systems GmbH, Teledyne Dalsa Inc., Microscan Systems Inc., Andor Technology plc, Newton Research Labs Inc., Basler AG, Datalogic SpA, Sidel AG, Matrox Electronics Systems Ltd.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         
Webutation
                                                                                                                       © 2013-2015 Graphene.  All rights reserved                                                         DMCA.com Protection Status                    

                                     
                                              
TRUSTe Privacy Policy Privacy Policy
Site protected by 6Scan